Reinterpreting and Augmenting John Tyndall’s 1859 Greenhouse Gas Experiment with Thermoelectric Theory and Raman Spectroscopy
at: academia.edu/ and http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0165 .
Here is a youtube presentation of my findings:
IntroductionModern climate science's fundamental premise - by all parties in the great climate debate - is that the greenhouse gases (around 2% of the atmosphere) absorb radiant infrared (IR) heat (as derived by IR spectroscopy), and are (to some proponents) a main climate driver because of this special property. This premise has its origins with the John Tyndall 1859 thermopile infrared gas analysis experiment. The (remaining) non-greenhouse gases (N2 nitrogen and O2 oxygen) are distinguished from the greenhouse gases by their inferred inability to absorb (infrared) heat - deduced from the same experiment. Modern practical application of Tyndall's apparatus , the thermopile, suggest he (and many scientists today) confused absorption with opacity - a property of light.
Below is a typical reference to a greenhouse effect definition and typical atmospheric spectragraph:
Fig.4. Absorption of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation by various gases in the atmosphere. Most of the ultraviolet light (below 0.3 microns) is absorbed by ozone (O3) and oxygen (O2). Carbon dioxide has three large absorption bands in the infrared region at about 2.7, 4.3, and 15 microns. Water has several absorption bands in the infrared, and even has some absorption well into the microwave region. There is already sufficient CO2 in the atmosphere to absorb almost all of the radiation from the sun or from the surface of the earth in the principal CO2 absorption bands. (Data from ref. , page 93; original data are from Howard et al  and Goody ).
And below is a typical chemistry explanation to why N2 and O2 are excluded:
N2 and O2 have no dipole, so they are not greenhouse gases.
Yes, N2 and O2 are both transparent to IR spectroscopy, but this fact still begs the question: how can the atmosphere be warm, if 98% of it (N2 and O2) are not IR (heat) ‘absorbent'? How can N2 and O2 be non greenhouse gas, yet they have a heat capacity coefficient?
Something must be wrong with this conjecture. I have found that there is. In a complementary entry to this one 'IR detectors are deceptive in wrong hands' I learnt - just as the title says - that IR camera's and the like are deceptive to the unwary, and have found to solve this paradox an alternative measuring instrument or method other than IR spectroscopy must be sourced to reveal the true IR properties of N2 and O2 (and all other gases). Such an instrument does exist, Raman spectroscopy.
Raman spectroscopy is well explained in the following clips. I suggest you play them more than once to yourself as they are very insightful and offer perfect solution to the dark climate paradox.
- Little or no sample preparation is required
- Water is a weak scatterer - no special accessories are needed for measuring aqueous solutions
- Water and CO2 vapors are very weak scatterers - purging is unnecessary
- Inexpensive glass sample holders are ideal in most cases
- Fiber optics (up to 100's of meters in length) can be used for remote analyses
- Since fundamental modes are measured, Raman bands can be easily related to chemical structure
- Raman spectra are "cleaner" than mid-IR spectra - Raman bands are narrower, and overtone and combination bands are generally weak
- The standard spectral range reaches well below 400 cm-1, making the technique ideal for both organic and inorganic species
- Raman spectroscopy can be used to measure bands of symmetric linkages which are weak in an infrared spectrum (e.g. -S-S-, -C-S-, -C=C-)
CO2 and Raman Spectroscopy
As shown in the above video clip CO2 has a predicted IR band that only shows with Raman Spectroscopy. This is supported by the following images/references. In the first the symmetric stretch at 1537 cm-1 is predicted 'B', and in the following image below, a 'cartoon' image clearly showing bands A, C and D of the IR (spectroscopy) spectrum, and in the lower cut, the 'green' Raman showing the band B.
To confirm my hypothesis that N2 and O2 do have an absorption band, either a primary experiment with a sample of the atmosphere should be conducted - using a Raman spectrograph machine, measuring for an N2 and O2 response in the IR region of the EM spectrum - or secondary research conducted, searching for research done on the atmosphere by means of Raman spectcoscopy. In the absence of an experiment, secondary results were searched using a google image search with the key words Raman spectcoscopy atmosphere. A positive image ('Fig. 11' below) was quickly found. This figure and its caption clearly comes from an unrelated journal publication, but the image reveals what many others in the same search reveal - such as: Heat Treating: Proceedings of the 16th Conference.Jon L. Dossett, Robert E. Luetje, 1996 page 228.
The image below (Fig. 18) shows again the 1556 O2, and other peaks at higher wavelengths along the spectrum.
Other confirming secondary references:
Use of Raman Spectrography in gas analysis: Springer
Conception of a gas analyzer based on linear raman spectroscopy:
If Raman spectroscopy was the only test we had to analyse the IR spectrum of substances, we could have equally have concluded that N2 and O2 are the (only) greenhouse gases.
- Why is Raman spectoscopy totally ignored when deriving the GHGs, when N2 and O2 are Raman active, and the likes of CO2, CH4 and H2O are too?
- Why is it thought that IR spectroscopy is the complete picture, when it is clearly discriminants out (by the exclusion principle) symmetric vibrational and rotational modes?